Text Message Defamation: Can A Text Be Libelous?

picture of woman looking at phone to accompany a blog post about text message defamationIs text message defamation a real thing? It depends.

First Things First, What Is The Definition of Defamation?

Before we talk about the specifics of text message libel, let’s review what constitutes defamation, generally speaking.

The Main Elements of Defamation

State laws vary slightly, but they all adhere to the federal standard:

  1. Publication – The material at hand must have been made public.
  2. Harm – The material at hand must have caused the plaintiff material harm.
  3. Fault – The material at hand must have been published, at the very least, negligently; meaning the defendant didn’t engage in enough fact checking before sending the text.

The Difference Between Slander and Libel

Slander and libel are two types of defamation. Spoken defamation is slander; written defamation is libel.

Opinion v. Defamation

Under United States law, opinion is not defamation. Anybody can talk trash about anybody – what you can’t do is spread lies about people.

Substantial Truth

Can a party be sued over a minor inaccuracy (i.e., reporting a business embezzled $1.5 million when in reality it only swindled $1 million)? In 99% of cases, no. Why not? Because of a legal standard called “substantial truth.” If a statement is mostly correct – and the inaccuracy doesn’t have a significant impact on a reader’s or listener’s overall understanding of a story — then substantial truth applies, and the defendant usually wins.

Privilege

Defamation is when one party makes an unprivileged false statement of fact about another party. Unprivileged means that the person doing the dishing didn’t have a legitimate right to “pass on” the information. For example, conversations between clients and lawyers are protected; as such, except in the rarest of circumstances, a defamation lawsuit couldn’t be crafted around a private conversation between an attorney and client.

Generally Speaking, When Is A Text Message NOT Considered Defamatory?

  • If a message is the nasty opinion of one person, it probably won’t qualify as text message defamation. We’re legally allowed to voice negative opinions.
  • If a text message was sent to only one person and did not cause the plaintiff material harm, it’s probably not defamatory.
  • If the statement is true, nine-and-a-half times out of ten the courts won’t consider it defamatory; but you may have a valid “publication of private facts” claim.

Generally Speaking, When Can A Text Message Be Deemed Defamatory?

  • If someone sends a false statement of fact to a text message group, the text message could be deemed defamatory.
  • If the false statement of fact causes material harm, a judge could deem it libelous.

NOTE: For a statement to be legally defamatory it must satisfy all the elements of defamation (see above). For example, it’s possible that a person could send a false statement of fact via text, but if it didn’t cause harm, it won’t be deemed defamatory.

Defamation law is full of caveats – like privilege, substantial truth, etc. – which can ultimately determine the outcome of a case. It’s best to consult a defamation attorney about the particulars of your situation to find out if you have a viable claim.

Speak With An SMS / Text Message Defamation Lawyer

Are you dealing with a defamation headache? Kelly / Warner helps individuals and businesses deal with their “digital defamation” woes. Whether you need help with text message defamation or other types of online libel – we can help.